Horse behavior and Stable vices Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language. They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature.
Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world. They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement. They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning. Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses. The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately — BC. Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in non-humans When horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch. A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger. Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horse Horses are mammals , and as such are warm-blooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals. The tarpan or European wild horse Equus ferus ferus was found in Europe and much of Asia. One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations. The most common hybrid is the mule , a cross between a "jack" male donkey and a mare. It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in , when the last captive died in a Russian zoo. Therefore, most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals. Horse behavior and Stable vices Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down. Attempts have been made to recreate the tarpan,    which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses. A related hybrid, a hinny , is a cross between a stallion and a jenny female donkey. The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between and , while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world. In , it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos. Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic. In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a " stay apparatus " in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing. Thus proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America. Wild horse A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated. Horse gait , Trot horse gait , Canter , and Ambling All horses move naturally with four basic gaits: By about 15, years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species.
Video about hot middle aged female with young stallion:
The young stallion' talks to the mare.
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